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June 28, 2022

What is MERN Stack? A Complete Guide 2022

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MERN Stack is a popular web development stack made up of MongoDB, Express.js, React.js, and Node.js. It has gained a lot of traction in the past few years because it allows developers to create full-stack web applications with relative ease. The development of websites has been largely simplified with the use of MERN Stack.

What began as a side project for full-stack web developer Clinton, administering data on the MongoDB database and working with the Express.js framework to route API calls, has turned into one of the most popular stacks used by developers today.

The MERN stack is a JavaScript stack that’s designed for the easy development of web applications. By using this technology stack, you can quickly create a well-organized project structure and build an application that is easy to maintain and scale.

As a full-stack developer, you will be responsible for developing and designing front-end web architecture, ensuring the responsiveness of applications, and working with teams to create user-friendly sites.

Keep reading as we learn more about MEAN stack technologies, including its framework, benefits, and use cases.

Introduction to MERN Stack

The full form of MERN is MongoDB, Express.js, React.js, and Node.js. It is a JavaScript stack used for the smooth development of web applications. MERN Stack is open-source and free to use as it contains a combination of four popular technologies namely MongoDB, ExpressJS, ReactJS, and NodeJS which comprise the mean stack application.

  • The main aim of using the MERN stack for web development is to make the process easier and faster. This technology has various tools and libraries that help in making the full-stack development process smoother.
  • MERN Stack developers can build dynamic end-to-end web applications with this technology stack as it covers all aspects of web development including front-end, back-end, database management, etc.
  • Previously, web developers had to use different software and tools for each phase of mean development which made the process lengthy and time-consuming.
  • But with the MERN stack, everything is JavaScript-based, which makes it easier for developers as they only need to know one language i.e., JavaScript throughout the development process.

This also makes the MEAN Stack framework a cost-effective solution as developers don’t need to invest in learning different technologies for each phase of web development. 

Let’s delve deeper into each of these technologies that make up the MERN stack.

  • MongoDB

MongoDB is a powerful and popular open-source database management system. It uses documents and collections instead of tables to store data.

It is also an agile NoSQL database that allows developers to iterate and change the structure of data quickly. MongoDB offers various scalability options that make it easy to scale applications as per the requirement.

  • MongoDB is written in C++ language and used by big companies like Expedia, meteor, eBay, etc.
  • As MongoDB stores data in JSON-like format, it becomes easier for MERN stack developers to query and manipulate data.
  • MERN stack development teams can also take advantage of MongoDB’s indexing feature to improve the performance of web applications.
  • MongoDB Atlas is a cloud-based MongoDB service that makes it easy to set up, operate, and scale MongoDB on the cloud.
  • It offers various features like automatic scalability, real-time performance monitoring, etc. that helps in improving the efficiency of MEAN stack MERN stack development.

When it comes to technicalities, MongoDB uses the BSON (Binary JSON) format to store documents. BSON is a binary-encoded serialization of JSON-like documents.

BSON extends the JSON model to provide additional data types, and ordered fields, and to be able to represent data structures more complex than what JSON can represent.

MongoDB also supports various programming languages like Node.js, Java, Python, etc. It offers both an intuitive GUI interface and a powerful set of command-line tools that help in managing MongoDB databases easily.

  • ExpressJS

ExpressJS is a back-end web development framework that runs on Node.js. It is the most popular Node.js framework and is used by big companies like Accenture, Myntra, etc.

  • ExpressJS provides a set of features and functions that help in simplifying the process of back-end web development.
  • Some popular features offered by ExpressJS are routing, middleware, database integration, etc. It also has a large community of developers who contribute various modules to improve the functionality of ExpressJS.
  • One of the main advantages of using ExpressJS is that it makes it easy to develop both single-page and multi-page web applications.
  • Another advantage is that it can be easily integrated with various front-end technologies like React, Angular, etc. This makes it a popular choice for full-stack web development using the MERN stack.
  • When it comes to performance, ExpressJS is much faster than other back-end web development frameworks as it uses non-blocking I/O and event-driven architecture. This helps in handling multiple requests simultaneously without any performance issues.

ExpressJS is also very lightweight as it doesn’t come with built-in features like form validation, templating, etc. But this can be easily overcome by using various third-party modules or libraries. Overall, ExpressJS is a great choice for back-end web development using MERN stack development.

  • ReactJS

ReactJS is a front-end web development framework that enables user interface development. It is a popular choice for developing single-page web applications as it offers high performance and scalability.

  • ReactJS uses a virtual DOM (Document Object Model) that helps in improving the performance of web applications.
  • It also uses a component-based approach that makes it easy to develop reusable UI components. ReactJS offers various features like JSX, error handling, etc. that help simplify the process of front-end web development.
  • When it comes to integration, ReactJS can be easily integrated with other back-end frameworks like Node.js, ExpressJS, etc. This makes it an ideal choice for full-stack web development using the MERN stack framework.
  • Big companies like Facebook, Instagram, Netflix, etc., are also using ReactJS. However, please note that ReactJS is only used for developing user interfaces.

If you want to develop complete web applications using MERN stack web development, then you will need to use other technologies like Node.js, ExpressJS, MongoDB, etc.

  • NodeJS

NodeJS is a back-end runtime environment that runs on JavaScript, enabling development of server-side applications. It is a very lightweight and efficient as it uses an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model.

  • This makes it capable of handling multiple requests simultaneously without any performance issues. NodeJS also has a large community of developers who contribute various modules to improve the functionality of NodeJS.
  • When it comes to integration, NodeJS can be easily integrated with other front-end technologies like React, Angular, etc. MERN full-stack development requires the use of NodeJS for back-end development.
  • Developers integrate various features into NodeJS applications like form validation, database integration, etc. using various modules and libraries. Moreover, the schema-less nature of the MongoDB database makes it a perfect choice for use with NodeJS.

Additionally, NodeJS also offers various features like a REPL environment, package manager, etc. that help in simplifying the process of back-end web development.

Combining Technologies for MERN Stack Development

Now that we have seen how each technology in MERN stack development is useful, let’s see how these technologies work together to develop complete web applications.

MERN stack web development uses a combination of MongoDB, ExpressJS, ReactJS, and NodeJS to develop complete web applications.

The first step is to develop the backend application using NodeJS and ExpressJS. This involves developing various features like form validation, database integration, etc. into the NodeJS application. Once the back-end application is ready, developers can begin with the front-end development using ReactJS.

This involves developing various user interface components using ReactJS. Once both the back-end and front-end applications are ready, the developer can integrate both ends together to form a complete web application.

The various benefits of MERN stack development include scalability, performance, flexibility, etc. that make it a popular choice for developing modern web applications.

MERN Stack Web Development Use Cases

MERN stack web development is useful for developing a wide range of web applications. Some of the popular use cases of MERN stack development are:

  • E-commerce applications
  • Social media applications
  • Content management systems
  • CRM (Customer Relationship Management) applications
  • Project management applications

Thus, we have seen what MERN stack development is and how it can help web developers to develop various types of web applications. If you are planning to develop a modern web application, then MERN stack development is a good choice.

It is flexible in a way that allows you to use various technologies as per your project requirements. Moreover, the large community of developers behind MERN stack development helps in keeping the technology up-to-date.

 

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